The 10 Biggest Revelations From Edward Snowden's Leaks

Former intelligence contractor Edward Snowden poses for a photo during an interview in an undisclosed location in December 2013 in Moscow, Russia.
Former intelligence contractor Edward Snowden poses for a photo during an interview in an undisclosed location in December 2013 in Moscow, Russia.
Image: Barton Gellman/Getty Images

One year ago, the Guardian published its first bombshell story based on leaked top-secret documents showing that the National Security Agency was spying on American citizens.

At the time, journalist Glenn Greenwald and the Guardian never mentioned that they had a treasure trove of other NSA documents, nor that they came from one person. Then three days later, the source surprisingly unmasked himself: His name was Edward Snowden.

Journalist Glenn Greenwald and the Guardian won a Pulitzer Prize for reporting based on Snowden's information.

“尽管IBM每年拥有的专利数量经常位居美国榜首,但本榜单不仅评估数量,也评估成功、全球化和影响力,”汤森路透分析师Bob Stembridge表示。

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周二,她在给客户的一封信里提出了下面几个观点,令我耳目一新:
Dirk Philippa, portfolio manager of Fidelity International’s global property fund, has also cut investments in Hong Kong from a 6-8 per cent overweight two years ago, relative to benchmarks, to a 1 per cent overweight position.
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1. Secret court orders allow NSA to sweep up Americans' phone records

The very first story revealed that Verizon had been providing the NSA with virtually all of its customers' phone records. It soon was revealed that it wasn't just Verizon, but 中证报头版:整治楼市乱象加大力度 不能留“死角” in America.

This revelation is still one of the most controversial ones. Privacy advocates have challenged the legality of the program in court, and one Judge deemed the program unconstitutional and "almost Orwellian," while another one ruled it legal.

The uproar caused by this first story has led President Barack Obama to endorse a reform to the program, and the House of Representatives to pass the first law that tries to change it.

2. PRISM

The existence of PRISM was the second NSA bombshell, coming less than 24 hours after the first one. Initially, reports described PRISM as the NSA's program to directly access the servers of U.S tech giants like Google, Facebook, Microsoft and Apple, among others.

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PRISM, we soon learned, was less less evil than first thought. In reality, the NSA doesn't have direct access to the servers, but can request user data from the companies, which are compelled by law to comply.

PRISM was perhaps as controversial as the first NSA scoop, prompting technology companies to first deny any knowledge of it, then later fight for the right to be more transparent about government data requests. The companies ended up partially winning that fight, getting the government to ease some restrictions and allow for more transparency.

3. Britain's version of the NSA taps fiber optic cables around the world

BrandZ表示,这些品牌靠近国内市场,这帮助它们从全球品牌手中夺取市场份额,它们还在新地区赢得市场份额。
但关于是否会诞生另一个火爆产品,来打破关于后乔布斯时代苹果前途的质疑,库克许久以前就学会了耐心和相信自己的直觉,正如他在1998年加入正处在困境中的苹果时对质疑者置之不理一样。
5. What are my core values? What is important to you as an individual? Is it family, health, spirituality, work, etc.? Make sure that you are living in alignment with what matters most to you.
As well as dancing, she has her eye on singing and acting - she has already acted in the TV shows Drop Dead Diva and Austin & Ally.

Tempora is one of the key NSA/GCHQ programs, allowing the spy agencies to collect vasts troves of data, but for some reason, it has sometimes been overlooked. After a couple of months from the Tempora revelation, a German newspaper revealed the names of the companies that collaborate with the GCHQ in the Tempora program: Verizon Business, British Telecommunications, Vodafone Cable, Global Crossing, Level 3, Viatel and Interoute.

4. NSA spies on foreign countries and world leaders

U.S. President Barack Obama, right, and German Chancellor Angela Merkel are seated together at a G7 dinner in Brussels, on June 4. Their relationship has been tense since reports revealed that the NSA tapped Merkel's phone.

For: A huge box office hit that could benefit from a slowly-changing Oscar voting demographic.
目前已经得到证实的是,胡歌将会加盟该电影,继续出演主角“李逍遥”,而女主角的扮演者暂时还未透露。
China has made huge progress in easing its residence and entry policies for foreigners since September 2015, which has helped attract more talent from overseas, as well as boost international exchanges and the economy, according to a ministry statement.

2015家具行业面临洗牌背后面临的问题和遭遇的困境

9.在培养皿中跳动的心脏
‘Can’t fault, I was thinking “go on boys”,’ Alesha smiled.

The German newsweekly Der Spiegel revealed that the NSA targets at least 122 world leaders.

Other stories over the past years have named specific targets like German Chancellor Angela Merkel, Brazil's President Dilma Roussef, and Mexico's former President Felipe Calderon, the French Foreign Ministry, as well as leaders at the 2010 G8 and G20 summits in Toronto.

5. XKeyscore, the program that sees everything

XKeyscore is a tool the NSA uses to search "nearly everything a user does on the Internet" through data it intercepts across the world. In leaked documents, the NSA describes it as the "widest-reaching" system to search through Internet data.

6. NSA efforts to crack encryption and undermine Internet security

Encryption makes data flowing through the Internet unreadable to hackers and spies, making the NSA's surveillance programs less useful. What's the point of tapping fiber optic cables if the data flowing through them is unreadable? That's why the NSA has a developed a 节能减排补贴政策 坐便器首次入围 to circumvent widely used web encryption technologies.

Dirk Philippa, portfolio manager of Fidelity International’s global property fund, has also cut investments in Hong Kong from a 6-8 per cent overweight two years ago, relative to benchmarks, to a 1 per cent overweight position.
就业市场面临着挑战。约有500万美国人失业已有六个月之久,技能退化令他们未来更难找到工作的风险也加大。此外,收入增长放缓引发的担忧可能会限制企业招聘。据咨询公司CEB今年10月进行的一项调查显示,约有36%的美国高管预计其公司的职员人数会减少;相比之下,今年夏天这一比例为29%。[qh]
弗拉德-迪瓦茨令人尴尬的新闻发布会,Vivek Ranadive对巴迪-希尔德的兴趣被透露,以及未能换回选秀权的多余球员。
当然,也有一些不那么乐观的消息。随着油价趋稳并随后下跌后,电动汽车的销量马上就开始受到拖累。铃木汽车(Suzuki)在美国市场上日渐式微,同时沃尔沃(Volvo)看起来也还是无力回天。中国——现在已是全球最大的汽车市场——的销售开始放缓,而欧洲依然在衰退中泥足深陷,汽车业产能过剩的根本性问题还是无法解决。

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中国人民银行(PBoC)干预外汇市场由来已久,目的是防止过度波动。不过,交易员们表示,自今年8月以来,这种干预已从国内即期市场(覆盖日常交易)扩大至包括香港的离岸人民币市场,以及在岸和离岸期货市场。
Still, the optimistic view is that several roadblocks to recovery -- an over-indebted consumer, a moribund housing market and shellshocked banks -- are no longer holding back hiring. Barring an unforeseen shock to the economy, this could mean 2013 will be another year of slow but steady growth.[qh]
对可穿戴技术有兴趣的不止是科技公司。梅赛德斯-奔驰(Mercedes-Benz)正在将移动体验移植到可穿戴设备上,而维珍航空(Virgin Atlantic)正在试验性地探索谷歌眼镜在顾客服务上的应用。
中国政府鼓励向中小规模的借款人放贷,其中很多贷款者没有信用纪录。分析师预计,在金融上表现活跃但没有信贷渠道的中国消费者有5亿之多。
顾伦德.查达哈的这部殖民题材电影讲的是1947年的英印权力移交及其余波。当时蒙巴顿勋爵夫妇的府邸有500名仆人,他们中有印度教徒、穆斯林和锡克教徒。休.博内威利和吉莉安.安德森饰演主人公夫妇。
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In June this year, a collaboration between universities and industry announced that it had discovered a huge reserve of helium gas in Tanzania, using a new exploration technique.
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7. NSA elite hacking team techniques revealed

The NSA has at its disposal an elite hacker team codenamed "Tailored Access Operations" (TAO) that hacks into computers worldwide, infects them with malware and does the dirty job when other surveillance tactics fail.

Der Spiegel, which detailed TAO's secrets, labelled it as "a squad of plumbers that can be called in when normal access to a target is blocked." But they can probably be best described as the NSA's black bag operations team.

中国富人近年来对岛屿表现出越来越浓厚的兴趣。
The impact of sluggish growth on year-end payouts may have peaked in 2015, however, when 66 per cent of white-collar workers received no year-end bonus. And the 2016 level actually represents an improvement from 2014, when 61 per cent had to go without.
With an average monthly salary of 14,822 yuan five years after graduation, graduates from Tsinghua University topped the salary rankings. While graduates from 39 colleges made the 10,000-yuan list, 185 colleges saw their graduates average monthly salary top 8,000 yuan, while graduates from 789 colleges made more than 6,000 yuan a month on average.
普华永道上周一发布的数据显示,2016年上半年中国内地A股首次公开募股(IPO)数量和融资金额同比均出现了大幅下滑。
The 2017 rankings feature the top 60 pre-experience courses for students with little or no background in the industry and the top six post-experience programmes for professionals already working in the sector. Only a handful of schools offer post-experience courses.

8. NSA cracks Google and Yahoo data center links

When bulk collection or PRISM fails, the NSA had other tricks up its sleeve: It could infiltrate links connecting Yahoo and Google data centers, behind the companies' backs.

赖特是英国浪漫主义画派的鼻祖之一。这幅作品从1840年起一直由德比郡的一个家族私藏。考虑到目前的行情,它的最低估价仅为10万英镑,还有一个重要因素是它的拍卖款将用于救济叙利亚难民。结果,至少有三位竞拍人把价格推高至66.5万英镑(含佣金)。

This story truly enraged the tech companies, which reacted with much more fury than before. Google and Yahoo announced plans to strengthen and encrypt those links to avoid this kind of surveillance, and a Google security employee even said on his Google+ account what many others must have thought privately: "Fuck these guys."

9. NSA collects text messages

It's not just about Internet data though. The NSA, following its unofficial motto of "collecting it all," intercepts 200 million text messages every day worldwide through a program called Dishfire.

1961年,爱德华·索普和克劳德·香农共同研制出第一副可佩戴的电脑眼镜。1968年,伊凡·苏泽兰制造出了"达摩克里斯的利剑"。这是第一台头戴式电脑,也是今天我们所有头戴式电脑的鼻祖。1980年,史蒂夫·曼恩,被称为"头戴式电脑之父",制造出了"可穿戴式电脑",这种电子增强型的眼镜,可以与其他电脑进行无线沟通以及共享视频。接下来的几年,他在眼镜领域继续研究,而在1999年时,他制造出了一副很像谷歌眼镜的眼镜,或者说谷歌眼镜的原型。他叫它做"电子眼镜"。
作为历史上一种非常敏感的大宗商品,原油价格走势已连续三年保持波澜不惊,其背后的一大支持因素就是美国的页岩油。

Other documents also revealed that the NSA can "easily" crack cellphone encryption, allowing the agency to more easily decode and access the content of intercepted calls and text messages.

10. NSA intercepts all phone calls in two countries

The NSA intercepts and stores all phone calls made in the Bahamas and Afghanistan through a program called MYSTIC, which has its own snazzy logo.

The Bahamas was revealed by The Intercept, Greenwald's new website, while the second was revealed by WikiLeaks, which protested The Intercept's decision to withhold the second country's name.

SplashData公司建议,使用榜单上出现的密码的用户和公司赶快修改自己的密码。SplashData公司警告称,用数字代替字母的常见密码,像“dr4mat1c”,也很容易遭到破解,因为现在密码入侵者的科技手段也越来越高端了。

Bonus: Edward Snowden's first in-person interview with an American news outlet

(H/T to the site Free Snowden, which has an extensive and detailed list of all the NSA revelations.)